© BSP 2013 Fighting is common in hierarchical communities.  To assume subordination and avoid fighting, the wolf signals by holding the tail between its legs. Hierarchy determines access to food and hence survival. Social stress cannot be avoided at all times in animals which live in groups. Biology of stress (book) Stress is a condition of imbalance of the body and mind as the consequence of smaller or greater problems that we face in our daily lives. If stress persists for too long, it may lead to one of several severe diseases (including depression, burn-out, cancer, and vascular diseases), and sick-leave. In Germany, 59 million working days were lost due to stress and its consequences in 2011 alone. Although many companies have initiated anti-stress programmes, stress remains a big problem. This is mainly because the anti-stress programmes do not consider the biology of stress, especially the importance of stress reactions from a biological and evolutionary point of view. This book explains from the biological function of stress how our bodies cope with everyday's struggle. This insight might help us to further reduce illness and absence from work. Author: Erwin van den Burg